CoreStorage

Le
J.P
A propos de CoreStorage, un article qui explique bien avec des exemples
(anglais, début 2015).
<https://www.reddit.com/r/osx/comments/2wzlxc/a_corestorage_primer_aka_wh
y_you_cant_manipulate/>
On y souligne le retard de Utilitaire disque pour voir et manipuler
cette structure, de même que le manque de documentation sur la commande
diskutil. (*)

Dans les commentaires:
- pourquoi Apple conserve HFS+
<https://www.reddit.com/r/osx/comments/2wzlxc/a_corestorage_primer_aka_wh
y_you_cant_manipulate/covlcas>
- pour constituer un Fusion drive avec diskutil cs addDisk
<https://www.reddit.com/r/osx/comments/2wzlxc/a_corestorage_primer_aka_wh
y_you_cant_manipulate/cow3asl>

et probablement d'autres choses intéressantes
--
(*) Cela a peut-être changé depuis, bien que la dernière version de man
DISKUTIL(8) semble dater de 10.9
<https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/M
anPages/man8/diskutil.8.html>
A «corestorage», description et commandes

--
Jean-Pierre
Vidéos High-Tech et Jeu Vidéo
Téléchargements
Vos réponses Page 1 / 3
Gagnez chaque mois un abonnement Premium avec GNT : Inscrivez-vous !
Trier par : date / pertinence
g4fleurot
Le #26387236
J.P
<https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/M
anPages/man8/diskutil.8.html>



celle que j'ai donné
<x-man-page://diskutil>
est datée du 7 octobre 2015 (réactualisée pour 10.11 : voir history)
--
Gérard FLEUROT
J.P
Le #26387245
In article (Fleuger) wrote:

J.P
> <https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Darwin/Reference/M
> anPages/man8/diskutil.8.html>

celle que j'ai donné
<x-man-page://diskutil>
est datée du 7 octobre 2015 (réactualisée pour 10.11 : voir history)



tu peux redonner le lien ?

--
Jean-Pierre
g4fleurot
Le #26387253
J.P
tu peux redonner le lien ?



Il n'y a pas de lien :
C'est le man page du terminal d'El capitan
/usr/share/man/man8/diskutil.8

--
Gérard FLEUROT
J.P
Le #26387256
In article (Fleuger) wrote:

J.P
> tu peux redonner le lien ?

Il n'y a pas de lien :
C'est le man page du terminal d'El capitan
/usr/share/man/man8/diskutil.8



OK

--
Jean-Pierre
J.P
Le #26387268
In article (Fleuger) wrote:

J.P
> tu peux redonner le lien ?

Il n'y a pas de lien :
C'est le man page du terminal d'El capitan
/usr/share/man/man8/diskutil.8



Sous SL,
- je suis allé le chercher où tu l'indiques
- je l'ai copié sur le bureau
- Terminal/ man avec ce diskutil comme argument (par drag&drop):
Si je fais une recherche "CoreStorage", pas de résultat .

Tu peux vérifier ?

--
Jean-Pierre
josephb
Le #26387274
J.P
> /usr/share/man/man8/diskutil.8

/Sous SL/,

Si je fais une recherche "CoreStorage", pas de résultat .



Ben oui, CoreStorage n'a été introduit qu'avec Lion.
Moi, avec Lion, le man diskutil.8 m'en donne toute une tartine sur
CoreStorage

--
J. B.
J.P
Le #26387281
In article (Joseph-B) wrote:

J.P
> > /usr/share/man/man8/diskutil.8
>
> /Sous SL/,

> Si je fais une recherche "CoreStorage", pas de résultat .

Ben oui, CoreStorage n'a été introduit qu'avec Lion.
Moi, avec Lion, le man diskutil.8 m'en donne toute une tartine sur
CoreStorage



J'ai dit avoir copié le diskutil.8 de Capitan sur mon bureau SL.

Erreur! en recommençant, ce n'est pas possible.
J'ai du oublier quelque chose dans le chemin.
J'ai probablement copié celui de SL.
Par ailleurs le man de SL ne sait pas ouvrir diskutil.8 sur le volume El
Capitan.

--
Jean-Pierre
josephb
Le #26387297
J.P
J'ai dit avoir copié le diskutil.8 de Capitan sur mon bureau SL.



ah… ta formulation était ambigüe.

Erreur! en recommençant, ce n'est pas possible.
J'ai du oublier quelque chose dans le chemin.
J'ai probablement copié celui de SL.
Par ailleurs le man de SL ne sait pas ouvrir diskutil.8 sur le volume El
Capitan.



Il y a toujours moyen de l'ouvrir dans TextWrangler, mais ça devient
encore plus rébarbatif à lire, car aucune option de mise en page
proposée (texte, teX, Unix Man page, XML) ne reconnaît le formatage du
man d'Apple (du moins chez moi).


--
J. B.
J.P
Le #26387305
In article (Joseph-B) wrote:

J.P
> J'ai dit avoir copié le diskutil.8 de Capitan sur mon bureau SL.

ahŠ ta formulation était ambigüe.
>
> Erreur! en recommençant, ce n'est pas possible.
> J'ai du oublier quelque chose dans le chemin.
> J'ai probablement copié celui de SL.
> Par ailleurs le man de SL ne sait pas ouvrir diskutil.8 sur le volume El
> Capitan.

Il y a toujours moyen de l'ouvrir dans TextWrangler, mais ça devient
encore plus rébarbatif à lire, car aucune option de mise en page
proposée (texte, teX, Unix Man page, XML) ne reconnaît le formatage du
man d'Apple (du moins chez moi).



Idem ici avec TextWrangler 4.5.12

--
Jean-Pierre
g4fleurot
Le #26387324
J.P
Idem ici avec TextWrangler 4.5.12



Je le copie après le caractère trublion



DISKUTIL(8) BSD System Manager's Manual DISKUTIL(8)

NAME
diskutil -- modify, verify and repair local disks

SYNOPSIS
diskutil [quiet] verb [options]

DESCRIPTION
diskutil manipulates the structure of local disks. It provides informa-
tion about, and allows the administration of, the partitioning schemes,
layouts, and formats of disks. This includes hard disks, solid state
disks, optical discs, CoreStorage volumes, and AppleRAID sets. It gener-
ally manipulates whole volumes instead of individual files and directo-
ries.

VERBS
Each verb is listed with its description and individual arguments.

list [-plist] [device]
List disks. If no argument is given, then all disks and all
of their partitions are listed.

If -plist is specified, then a property list will be emitted
instead of the normal user-readable output. If a device is
specified, then instead of listing all families of whole disks
and their partitions, only one such family is listed. In that
case, specifying either the whole disk or any of its slices
will work.

A script could interpret the results of the diskutil list
-plist output and use diskutil info -plist as well as diskutil
listFilesystems -plist for more detailed information.

See the DEVICES section below for the various forms that the
device specification may take for this and all of the other
diskutil verbs.

The top-to-bottom appearance of partitions in diskutil list
always indicates the on-disk ordering. BSD disk identifiers
may, in certain circumstances, not appear in slice-numerical
order when viewed this way. This is normal and is likely the
result of a recent partition map editing operation in which
volumes were kept mounted.

info | information [-plist] device | -all
Get detailed information about a specific whole disk or parti-
tion. If -plist is specified, then a property list instead of
the normal user-readable output will be emitted. If -all is
specified, then all disks (whole disks and their partitions)
are processed.

activity
Continuously display system-wide disk manipulation activity as
reported by the Disk Arbitration framework until interrupted
with a signal (e.g. by typing Control-C).

This can be useful to watch system-wide activity of disks com-
ing on-line or being ejected, volumes on disks being mounted
or unmounted, volumes being renamed, etc. However, this out-
put must never be parsed; programs should become Disk Arbitra-
tion clients instead.

For debugging information, such as the monitoring of applica-
tions dissenting (attempting to deny) activities for disks for
which they have registered an interest, you must use the log-
ging features of the diskarbitrationd daemon. Programs needing
this information must become Disk Arbitration clients.

listFilesystems [-plist]
Show the file system personalities available for formatting in
diskutil when using the erasing and partitioning verbs. This
is a subset of the complete set of personalities exported by
the various file system bundles that may be installed in the
system. Also shown are some shortcut aliases for common per-
sonalities. See the FORMAT section below for more details.
If -plist is specified, then a property list instead of the
normal user-readable output will be emitted.

unmount | umount [force] device
Unmount a single volume. Force will force-unmount the volume
(less kind to any open files; see also umount (8)).

unmountDisk | umountDisk [force] device
Unmount an entire disk (all volumes). Force will force-
unmount the volumes (less kind to any open files; see also
umount (8)). You should specify a whole disk, but all volumes
of the whole disk are attempted to be unmounted even if you
specify a partition.

eject device
Eject a disk. Media will become offline for the purposes of
being a data store for file systems or being a member of con-
structs such as software RAID or direct data. Additionally,
removable media will become eligible for safe manual removal;
automatically-removable media will begin its physical (motor-
ized) eject sequence.

mount [readOnly] [-mountPoint path] device
Mount a single volume. If readOnly is specified, then the
file system is mounted read-only, even if the volume's under-
lying file system and/or device and/or media supports writing;
even the super-user may not write to it; this is the same as
the rdonly option to mount (8). If a -mountPoint is speci-
fied, then that path, rather than the standard path of /Vol-
umes/VolumeName, will be used as the view into the volume file
content; a directory at that path must already exist.

mountDisk device
Mount an entire disk (all mountable volumes). You should
specify a whole disk, but all volumes of the whole disk are
attempted to be mounted even if you specify a partition.

rename | renameVolume device name
Rename a volume. Volume names are subject to file system-spe-
cific alphabet and length restrictions.

enableJournal device
Enable journaling on an HFS+ volume. This works whether or
not the volume is currently mounted (the volume is temporarily
mounted if necessary). Ownership of the affected disk is
required.

disableJournal [force] device
Disable journaling on an HFS+ volume. This normally works
whether or not the volume is currently mounted (the volume is
temporarily mounted if necessary). If the force option is
specified, then journaling is disabled directly on disk; in
this case, the volume must not be mounted. Ownership of the
affected disk is required.

moveJournal external journalDevice device
Create a 512MB Apple_Journal partition using the journalDevice
partition to serve as a journal for the volume device. For
best results, journalDevice should be a partition on a differ-
ent whole-disk than the volume itself.

The journal for device will be moved externally onto the newly
created Apple_Journal partition.

Since the journalDevice you specify will invariably be larger
than 512MB, a new HFS+ partition will be created following the
Apple_Journal partition to fill the remaining space.

Moving the journal works whether or not the volume is mounted,
provided journaling is enabled on that volume. No errors are
currently supported to flag attempts to move journals on vol-
umes that do not have journaling enabled. If you have multi-
ple volumes for which you want external journals, each must
have its own external Apple_Journal partition. Ownership of
the affected disks is required.

moveJournal internal device
Move the journal for device back locally (onto that same
device). Ownership of the affected disk is required.

enableOwnership device
Enable ownership of a volume. The on-root-disk Volume Data-
base at /var/db/volinfo.database is manipulated such that the
User and Group ID settings of files, directories, and links
(file system objects, or "FSOs") on the target volume are
taken into account.

This setting for a particular volume is persistent across
ejects and injects of that volume as seen by the current OS,
even across reboots of that OS, because of the entries in this
OS's Volume Database. Note thus that the setting is not kept
on the target disk, nor is it in-memory.

For some locations of devices (e.g. internal hard disks), con-
sideration of ownership settings on FSOs is the default. For
others (e.g. plug-in USB disks), it is not.

When ownership is disabled, Owner and Group ID settings on
FSOs appear to the user and programs as the current user and
group instead of their actual on-disk settings, in order to
make it easy to use a plug-in disk of which the user has phys-
ical possession.

When ownership is enabled, the Owner and Group ID settings
that exist on the disk are taken into account for determining
access, and exact settings are written to the disk as FSOs are
created. A common reason for having to enable ownership is
when a disk is to contain FSOs whose User and Group ID set-
tings, and thus permissions behavior overall, is critically
important, such as when the plug-in disk contains system files
to be changed or added to.

See also the vsdbutil(8) command. Running as root is
required.

disableOwnership device
Disable ownership of a volume. See enableOwnership above.
Running as root is required.

verifyVolume device
Verify the file system data structures of a volume. The
appropriate fsck program is executed and the volume is left
mounted or unmounted as it was before the command. Ownership
of the disk to be verified is required.

repairVolume device
Repair the file system data structures of a volume. The
appropriate fsck program is executed and the volume is left
mounted or unmounted as it was before the command. Ownership
of the affected disk is required.

verifyDisk device
Verify the partition map layout of a whole disk intended for
booting or data use on a Macintosh. The checks further
include, but are not limited to, the integrity of the EFI Sys-
tem Partition, the integrity of any Core Storage Physical Vol-
ume partitions, and provisioning of space for boot loaders.
Ownership of the disk to be verified is required; it must be a
whole disk and must have a partition map.

repairDisk device
Repair the partition map layout of a whole disk intended for
booting or data use on a Macintosh. The repairs further
include, but are not limited to, the repair or creation of an
EFI System Partition, the integrity of any Core Storage Physi-
cal Volume partitions, and the provisioning of space for boot
loaders. Ownership of the affected disk is required; it must
be a whole disk and must have a partition map.

eraseDisk format name [APM[Format] | MBR[Format] | GPT[Format]] device
Erase an existing disk, removing all volumes and writing out a
new partitioning scheme containing one new empty file system
volume. If the partitioning scheme is not specified, then an
appropriate one for the current machine is chosen. Format is
discussed below in the section for the partitionDisk verb.
Ownership of the affected disk is required.

eraseVolume format name device
Write out a new empty file system volume (erasing any current
file system volume) on an existing partition. The partition
remains but its data is lost. Format is discussed below in
the section for the partitionDisk verb.

If you specify Free Space for format, the partition itself is
deleted (removed entirely) from the partition map instead of
merely being erased. Ownership of the affected disk is
required.

reformat device
Erase an existing volume by writing out a new empty file sys-
tem of the same personality (type) and with the same volume
name. Ownership of the affected disk is required.

eraseOptical [quick] device
Erase optical media (CD/RW, DVD/RW, etc.). Quick specifies
whether the disc recording system software should do a full
erase or a quick erase. Ownership of the affected disk is
required.

zeroDisk [force] device
Erase a device, writing zeros to the media. The device can be
a whole-disk or a partition. In either case, in order to be
useful again, zero'd whole-disks will need to be (re)parti-
tioned, or zero'd partitions will need to be (re)formatted
with a file system, e.g. by using the partitionDisk,
eraseDisk, or eraseVolume verbs. If you desire a more sophis-
ticated erase algorithm or if you need to erase only free
space not in use for files, use the secureErase verb. The
force parameter causes best-effort, non-error-terminating,
forced unmounts and shared-mode writes to be attempted; how-
ever, this is still no guarantee against drivers which claim
the disk exclusively. In such cases, you may have to first
unmount all overlying logical volumes (e.g. CoreStorage or
AppleRAID), or, if a disk is partially damaged in just the
wrong way, even un-install a kext or erase the disk elsewhere.
Ownership of the affected disk is required.

randomDisk [times] device
Erase a whole disk, writing random data to the media. Times
is the optional (defaults to 1) number of times to write ran-
dom information. The device can be a whole-disk or a parti-
tion. In either case, in order to be useful again, randomized
whole-disks will need to be (re)partitioned, or randomized
partitions will need to be (re)formatted with a file system,
e.g. by using the partitionDisk or eraseDisk verbs. If you
desire a more sophisticated erase algorithm or if you need to
erase only free space not in use for files, use the
secureErase verb. Ownership of the affected disk is required.

secureErase [freespace] level device
Erase, using a secure method, either a whole-disk (including
any and all partitions), or, only the free space (not in use
for files) on a currently-mounted volume. Erasing a whole-
disk will leave it useless until it is partitioned again.
Erasing freespace on a volume will leave it exactly as it was
from an end-user perspective, with the exception that it will
not be possible to recover deleted files or data using utility
software. If you need to erase all contents of a partition
but not its hosting whole-disk, use the zeroDisk or randomDisk
verbs. Ownership of the affected disk is required.

Level should be one of the following:

+ 0 - Single-pass zero-fill erase.

+ 1 - Single-pass random-fill erase.

+ 2 - US DoD 7-pass secure erase.

+ 3 - Gutmann algorithm 35-pass secure erase.

+ 4 - US DoE algorithm 3-pass secure erase.

partitionDisk device [numberOfPartitions] [APM[Format] | MBR[Format] |
GPT[Format]] [part1Format part1Name part1Size part2Format
part2Name part2Size part3Format part3Name part3Size ...]

(re)Partition a disk, removing all volumes. All volumes on
this disk will be destroyed. The device parameter specifies
which whole disk is to be partitioned. The optional
numberOfPartitions parameter specifies the number of parti-
tions to create; if given then the number of parameter
triplets (see below) is expected to match; else, the number of
triplets alone given will determine the number of partitions
created.

The optional partitioning scheme parameter forces a particular
partitioning scheme; if not specified, a suitable default is
chosen. They are:

+ APM[Format] specifies that an Apple Partition Map
scheme should be used. This is the traditional
Apple partitioning scheme used to start up a Pow-
erPC-based Macintosh computer, to use the disk as a
non-startup disk with any Mac, or to create a multi-
platform compatible startup disk.

+ MBR[Format] specifies that a Master Boot Record
scheme should be used. This is the DOS/Windows-com-
patible partitioning scheme.

+ GPT[Format] specifies that a GUID Partitioning Table
scheme should be used. This is the partitioning
scheme used to start up an Intel-based Macintosh
computer.

For each partition, a triplet of the desired file system for-
mat, volume name, and size must be specified. Several other
diskutil verbs allow these triplets as well (and for them, the
numberOfPartitions parameter is also optional). The triplets
must be as follows:

+ Format names are of the form jhfs+, HFS+, MS-DOS,
etc.; a list of formattable file systems (more pre-
cisely, specific file system personalities exported
by the installed file system bundles) and common
aliases is available from the listFilesystems verb.

Format guides diskutil both in what partition type
to set for the partitions (slices) as well as what
file system structures to initialize therein, using
the file system bundle's plist's FormatExecutable
setting which usually points to the appropriate for-
matter program such as newfs_hfs(8).

You can specify a format of Free Space to skip an
area of the disk.

You can specify the partition type manually and
directly with a format of %<human-readable partition
type>% such as %Apple_HFS% or %<GPT partition type
UUID constant>% such as
%48465300-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC%; these imply
a name of %noformat% (below). Human-readable types
must be known to the system but UUID types (GPT
scheme only) can be arbitrary.

+ Names are the initial volume names; they must con-
form to file system specific restrictions.

If a name of %noformat% is specified, then the par-
tition is left blank such that the partition space
is carved out, the partition type is set according
to the file system format name or explicit type, the
partition space is partially erased ("wiped"), but a
file system structure is not initialized with any
file system's formatter program (e.g. newfs_hfs(8);
this is useful for setting up partitions that will
contain user-defined (not necessarily file system)
data.

For a triplet whose format is Free Space or a
directly-specified partition type, its name is
ignored but a dummy name must nevertheless be
present.

+ Sizes are floating point numbers followed by a let-
ter or percent sign as described in the SIZES sec-
tion at the end of this page (e.g. 165536000, 55.3T,
678M, 75%, R).

In addition to explicitly-requested partitions, space (gaps)
might be allocated to satisfy certain filesystems' position
and length alignment requirements; space might be allocated
for possible future booter partition insertion; and indeed,
actual booter partitions might be implicitly created.

In particular, there is a rule that unrecognized partitions
1GiB or larger automatically acquire booters. Thus, if you
create an arbitrary partition with e.g. diskutil
partitionDisk disk0 gpt %11112222-1111-2222-1111-111122221111%
%noformat% 3gib jhfs+ Untitled r, then a booter partition will
also be created. You can always delete that booter with
diskutil eraseVolume "Free Space" dummy disk0s3.

The last partition is usually automatically lengthened to the
end of the partition map (disk). You can specify an exact
size for your last partition by specifying it as the penulti-
mate triplet and specifying an additional (last) triplet as
Free Space. Or you can use the R (remainder) size specifier
for one of your middle partitions while specifying an exact
size for your last partition.

Ownership of the affected disk is required.

resizeVolume device [ limits | mapsize | R | size [numberOfPartitions]
[part1Format part1Name part1Size part2Format part2Name
part2Size part3Format part3Name part3Size ...] ]

Non-destructively resize a volume (partition); you may
increase or decrease its size. Alternatively, takes no action
and prints some info.

A size of limits takes no action, but instead will print the
range of valid values for the target partition, taking into
account current file system and partition map conditions such
as files in use and other (immovable) partitions following the
target.

A size of mapsize takes no action, but instead will print the
size of the encompassing whole-disk device, as well as the
size of the entire partition map (all partitions less map
overhead). The whole-disk device might be larger than the par-
tition map if the whole-disk device has grown since the parti-
tion map was created. Growing a whole-disk device is possible
with certain enterprise disk (RAID) systems.

You can grow a volume (partition) (back) to its maximum size
possible, provided no new partitions have been created that
are in the way, by specifying R for the new volume size. You
should use R instead of attempting an absolute value such as
100% because the latter cannot count partition map overhead.

When decreasing the size, new partitions may optionally be
created to fill the newly-freed space. To do this, specify
the numberOfPartitions, format, name, and size parameters in
the same manner as the triplet description for the
partitionDisk verb.

Resizing a volume that is currently set as the computer's
startup disk will invalidate that setting; use the Startup
Disk System Preferences panel or bless (8) to reset the
resized volume as the startup disk.

Device refers to a volume; the volume's file system must be
journaled HFS+. Valid sizes are a number followed by a capi-
tal letter multiplier or percent sign suffix as described in
the SIZES section at the end of this page (e.g. 1.5T, 128M,
50%). Ownership of the affected disk is required.

splitPartition device [numberOfPartitions] [part1Format part1Name
part1Size part2Format part2Name part2Size part3Format
part3Name part3Size ...]

Destructively split a volume into multiple partitions. You
must supply a list of new partitions to create in the space of
the old partition; specify these with the numberOfPartitions,
format, name, and size parameters in the same manner as the
triplet description for the partitionDisk verb.

For one of your triplets, you can optionally specify the R
meta-size in lieu of a constant number value for the size
parameter: the substituted value will be exactly the amount of
space necessary to complete the re-filling of the original
partition with all of your triplets.

Device refers to a volume. Ownership of the affected disk is
required.

mergePartitions [force] format name fromDevice toDevice
Merge two or more partitions on a disk. All data on merged
partitions other than the first will be lost. Data on the
first partition will be lost as well if the force argument is
given.

If force is not given, and the first partition has a resizable
file system (e.g. JHFS+), the file system will be preserved
and grown in a data-preserving manner; your format and name
parameters are ignored in this case. If force is not given,
and the first partition is not resizable, you are prompted if
you want to format. You will also be prompted to format if
the first partition has an (HFS) Allocation Block Size which
is too small to support the required growth of the first par-
tition; see the -b option for newfs_hfs (8).

If force is given, the final resulting partition is always
(re)formatted. You should do this if you wish to (re)format to
a new file system type. You will be prompted to confirm.

Format and name must always be given, but they have an effect
only when force is given.

Merged partitions are required to be ordered sequentially on
disk (see diskutil list for the actual on-disk ordering). All
partitions in the range, except for the first one, must be
unmountable. Ownership of the affected disk is required.

appleRAID | ar raidVerb [...]
AppleRAID verbs can be used to create, manipulate and destroy
AppleRAID volumes (Software RAID). AppleRAID supports three
basic types of RAID sets:

+ "stripe" - Striped Volume (RAID 0)

+ "mirror" - Mirrored Volume (RAID 1)

+ "concat" - Concatenated Volume (Spanning)

Of these three basic types, only the "mirror" type increases
fault-tolerance. Mirrors may have more than two disks to fur-
ther increase their fault-tolerance. Striped and concaten-
tated volumes are, in fact, more vulnerable to faults than
single disk volumes.

From these basic types, "stacked" or "nested" RAID volumes can
be created. Stacked RAID sets that make use of mirrored RAID
sets are fault-tolerant. For example, these are some of the
more common combinations of stacked RAID sets:

+ RAID 50 - A striped RAID set of hardware RAID 5
disks.

+ RAID 10 - A striped RAID set of mirrored RAID sets.

+ RAID 0+1 - A mirrored RAID set of striped RAID sets.

+ Concatenated Mirror - A concatenation of mirrored
RAID sets.

When creating new RAID sets or adding disks, if possible, it
is better to specify the entire disk instead of a partition on
that disk. This allows the software to reformat the entire
disk using the most current partition layouts. When using
whole disks, the type of partitioning used is selected based
on the platform type (PPC = APMFormat, Intel = GPTFormat).
GPT and APM partition formats cannot be mixed in the same RAID
set.

In addition to whole disk and partition device names,
AppleRAID uses UUIDs to refer to existing RAID sets and their
members. Existing RAID sets may also be specified by mount
point (e.g. /Volume/raidset). In many cases, using the UUID
for the device argument is preferred because disk device names
may change over time when disks are added, disks are removed
or when the system is rebooted. If RAID members have been
physically disconnected from the system or are no longer
responding, you must use the member's UUID as the command
argument. Messages in the system log will refer to RAID sets
and their member disks by UUID. For more information on spec-
ifying device arguments see the "DEVICES" section below.

AppleRAID is not a replacement for backing up your data.
Backups should be always be performed on a regular basis and
before modifying any RAID set using these commands.

The following is a list of appleRAID sub-verbs with their
descriptions and individual arguments.

list [-plist | UUID]
Display AppleRAID volumes with current status and
associated member disks. If UUID is specified,
only list the RAID set with that AppleRAID Set
UUID. If -plist is specified, then a property list
will be emitted instead of user-formatted output.
The -plist and UUID arguments may not both be spec-
ified. diskutil listRAID and diskutil checkRAID
are deprecated synonyms for diskutil appleRAID
list.

create mirror | stripe | concat setName format devices ...
Create a new RAID set consisting of multiple disks
and/or RAID sets. setName is used for both the
name of the created RAID volume and the RAID set
itself (as displayed in list). e.g. 'diskutil cre-
ateRAID stripe MyArray JHFS+ disk1 disk2 disk3
disk4'. Ownership of the affected disks is
required. diskutil createRAID is a deprecated syn-
onym for diskutil appleRAID create.

delete raidVolume
Destroy an existing RAID set. If the RAID set is a
mirror with a resizable file system, delete will
attempt to convert each of the member partitions
back into a non-RAID volume while retaining the
contained file system. For concatenated RAID sets
with a resizable file system, delete will attempt
to shrink the file system to fit on the first mem-
ber partition and convert that to a non-RAID vol-
ume. Ownership of the affected disks is required.
diskutil destroyRAID is a deprecated synonym for
diskutil appleRAID delete.

repairMirror raidVolume newDevice
Repair a degraded mirror by adding a "new" disk
given as newDevice to the RAID mirror set whose
exported disk device or set UUID is given as
raidVolume. The new disk must be the same size or
larger than the existing disks in the RAID set.
After running this command, you should manually
remove the old (orphaned, failed) member(s) with
diskutil appleRAID remove. Ownership of the
affected disk is required. diskutil repairMirror
is a deprecated synonym for diskutil appleRAID
repairMirror.

add type newDevice raidVolume
Add a new member or hot spare to an existing RAID
set. Type can be either member or spare. New
disks are added live, the RAID volume does not need
to be unmounted. Mirrored volumes support adding
both members and hot spares, concatenated volumes
only support adding members. When adding to a mir-
rored RAID set, the new disk must be the same size
or larger than the existing disks in the RAID set.
Adding a hot spare to a mirror will enable autore-
building for that mirror. Adding a new member to a
concatenated RAID set appends the member and
expands the RAID volume. Ownership of the affected
disk is required. diskutil addToRAID is a depre-
cated synonym for diskutil appleRAID add.

remove oldDevice raidVolume
Remove a member or spare from an existing RAID set.
Old disks are removed live; the RAID volume does
not need to be unmounted. For missing devices,
oldDevice must be the device's UUID. Online mirror
members with a resizable file system will be con-
verted to non-RAID volumes, spare and offline mem-
bers will be marked free. For concatenated RAID
sets, only the last member can be removed. For
resizable file systems remove will first attempt to
shrink the concatenated RAID set so that the file
system fits on the remaining disks. Ownership of
the affected disk is required. diskutil
removeFromRAID is a deprecated synonym for diskutil
appleRAID remove.

enable mirror | concat device
Convert a non-RAID disk partition containing a
resizable file system (such as JHFS+) into an
unpaired mirror or single disk concatenated RAID
set. Disks that were originally partitioned on Mac
OS X 10.2 Jaguar or earlier or were partitioned to
be Mac OS 9 compatible may not be resizable. Own-
ership of the affected disk is required. diskutil
enableRAID is a deprecated synonym for diskutil
appleRAID enable.

update key value raidVolume
Update the key value parameters of an existing RAID
set. Valid keys are:

+ AutoRebuild - If true, the system
attempts to rebuild degraded mirrored
volumes automatically. When looking for
devices for rebuild, AppleRAID first
looks for hot spares and then degraded
members. Use a value of "1" for true and
"0" for false.

+ SetTimeout - Controls how long the system
waits (in seconds) for a missing device
before degrading a mirrored raid set.
Also controls the amount of time you have
to disconnect all devices from an
unmounted mirror without degrading it.

Ownership of the affected disk is required.
diskutil updateRAID is a deprecated synonym for
diskutil appleRAID update.

coreStorage | cs coreStorageVerb [...]
CoreStorage verbs can be used to create, manipulate and
destroy CoreStorage volumes.

CoreStorage maintains a world of virtual disks, somewhat like
RAID, in which one can easily add or remove imported backing
store disks, as well as exported usable volumes, to or from a
pool (or several pools). This provides the user with flexibil-
ity in allocating their hardware; user or operating system
data can span multiple physical disks seamlessly, for example.

Apple CoreStorage defines four types of objects, instances of
which are uniquely represented by a UUID:

+ Logical Volume Group (LVG)

+ Physical Volume (PV)

+ Logical Volume Family (LVF)

+ Logical Volume (LV)

The Logical Volume Group (LVG) is the top or "pool" level;
zero or more may exist during any OS boot time session.

An LVG imports one or more Physical Volumes (PVs). A PV repre-
sents a device that feeds the LVG storage space; a PV is nor-
mally real media but it can be a disk image or even an
AppleRAID Set. A disk offered to be a PV must be a partition
and the encompassing scheme must be GPT.

An LVG exports zero or more Logical Volume Families (LVFs). An
LVF contains properties which govern and bind together all of
its descendant Logical Volumes (LVs). These properties provide
settings for Full Disk Encryption (FDE) (such as whether the
LVG is encrypted, which users have access, etc) and other ser-
vices. However, at the present time, for new LVF creation,
only zero or one LVF per LVG is supported.

A Logical Volume Family (LVF) exports one or more Logical Vol-
umes (LVs). However, at the present time, only and exactly
one LV per LVF is supported.

A Logical Volume (LV) exports a dev node, upon which a file
system (such as Journaled HFS+) resides.

For more information on specifying device arguments, see the
DEVICES section below.

CoreStorage is not a replacement for backing up your data.
Backups should be always be performed on a regular basis and
before modifying any CoreStorage volumes using these commands.

The following is a list of coreStorage sub-verbs with their
descriptions and individual arguments.

list [-plist | UUID]
Display a tree view of the CoreStorage world for
all current logical volume groups (LVGs) with mem-
ber disks (PVs) and exported volumes (LVFs and
LVs), with properties and status for each level.
If -plist is specified then a property list will be
emitted instead of the formatted tree output; the
UUIDs can be used with the diskutil coreStorage
information verb to get properties for the object
represented by that UUID. If UUID is specified
then an attempt is made to list only that UUID
(whatever type of CoreStorage object it may repre-
sent). The -plist and UUID arguments may not both
be specified.

info | information [-plist] UUID | device
Display properties of the CoreStorage object (LVG,
PV, LVF, or LV) associated with the given CoreStor-
age UUID or disk.

convert device [-stdinpassphrase | -passphrase [passphrase]]
Convert a regular Journaled HFS+ or Case-sensitive
Journaled HFS+ volume (must be on a partition and
within a GPT partitioning scheme) into a CoreStor-
age logical volume.

If -passphrase is specified, the on-disk bytes will
be encrypted. You will be prompted for a new
passphrase interactively, or you can specify the
passphrase on the command line. Alternatively, if
you specify -stdinpassphrase the standard input is
read for the passphrase so that a program could
execute diskutil and send the passphrase through a
pipe without having to expose it as a command-line
parameter.

The volume must be resizable (the above types are)
and also mounted. Conversion is done live and in-
place; targeting the boot volume is supported; as
much of the conversion as possible is done before
an eject or reboot is necessary.

After slightly shrinking the source volume to make
room for CoreStorage data structures at the end,
its partition type is changed to Apple_CoreStorage
and it becomes a CoreStorage Physical Volume. A
new CoreStorage Logical Volume Group is then cre-
ated with this Physical Volume as the backing
store, followed by the creation of a Logical Volume
Family and Logical Volume pair.

At this point, the new CoreStorage PV/LVG/LVF/LV
stack is ready for use, although the "old" mount-
point must first be unmounted; yet it might not be
unmountable. This will occur if the target (now the
PV) is the current boot volume.

Just before exiting, diskutil coreStorage convert
will try to unmount the target disk (which is now
the "old" mount point and the new PV). If success-
ful (target is not the boot disk), the volume now
becomes mounted from the LV. If unsuccessful (tar-
get is the boot disk), a reboot is necessary.

At this point, if no encryption was specified, all
is done. Otherwise, the bytes-on-disk will begin to
be encrypted in-place by CoreStorage automatically
"in the background" while the PV/LVG/LVF/LV stack
continues to be usable. Encryption progress may be
monitored with diskutil coreStorage list.

When encryption is finished, a passphrase will be
required the next time the LV is ejected and re-
attached. If the LV is hosting the boot volume,
this passphrase requirement will thus occur at the
next reboot.

Note that all on-disk data is not secured immedi-
ately; it is a deliberate process of encrypting all
on-disk bytes while the CoreStorage driver keeps
publishing the (usable) LVG/LV.

Ownership of the affected disk is required.

revert device | lvUUID [-stdinpassphrase] | [-passphrase
passphrase] | [-recoverykeychain file]
Convert a CoreStorage logical volume back to its
native type. The volume must have been created by
means of conversion, e.g. with diskutil coreStorage
convert.

If the volume was not created with a passphrase,
then simple ownership of the affected disk is
required; otherwise, a passphrase must be supplied,
either interactively or via one of the parameters
or a keychain file in the same manner as diskutil
coreStorage unlockVolume.

create | createLVG lvgName devices ...
Create a CoreStorage logical volume group. The
disks specified will become the (initial) set of
physical volumes; more than one may be specified.
You can specify partitions (which will be re-typed
to be Apple_CoreStorage) or whole-disks (which will
be partitioned as GPT and will contain an
Apple_CoreStorage partition). The resulting LVG
UUID can then be used with createVolume below. All
existing data on the drive(s) will be lost. Owner-
ship of the affected disk is required.

delete | deleteLVG lvgUUID | lvgName
Delete a CoreStorage logical volume group. All log-
ical volume families with their logical volumes are
removed, the logical volume group is destroyed, and
the now-orphaned physical volumes are erased and
partition-typed as Journaled HFS+.

rename | renameLVG lvgUUID | lvgName newName
Rename a CoreStorage logical volume group. Do not
confuse this name with the LV name or the volume
name of the file system volume on the LV.

createVolume | createLV lvgUUID | lvgName type name size
[-stdinpassphrase | -passphrase [passphrase]]
Export a new logical volume family, with a new log-
ical volume under it, out of a CoreStorage logical
volume group. Type is the file system personality
to initialize on the new logical volume. Valid
types are Journaled HFS+ or Case-sensitive Jour-
naled HFS+ or their aliases. Size is the amount of
space to allocate from the parent LVG. It is given
in the same manner as the triplet description for
the partitionDisk verb, and you can also specify
with % a percentage of the currently remaining
unallocated space in the LVG.

If -passphrase or -stdinpassphrase is specified, in
the same manner as with diskutil coreStorage
convert above, on-disk data will be stored in an
encrypted form as the Logical Volume is filled;
otherwise, the data will remain plain.

deleteVolume | deleteLV lvUUID | device
Remove an exported logical volume (and its logical
volume family as appropriate) from a CoreStorage
logical volume group. Any data on that logical vol-
ume will be lost. This operation will thus result
in an increase in free space in the logical volume
group.

It is assumed that the logical volume is used as a
backing store for a file system; therefore, an
unmount attempt is made which must succeed before
the removal of the logical volume is done.

encryptVolume | encryptLV lvUUID | device [-stdinpassphrase] |
[-passphrase passphrase]
Begin a live background process of encrypting the
on-disk backing bytes of an existing plain
CoreStorage logical volume (LV).

That is, the on-disk bytes that are backing the
user data are all visited, read, and re-written in
an encrypted form; this process can take a long
time (minutes to hours). This process continues
seamlessly across reboots. The logical volume
remains usable at all times. When this command
returns, the operation will be ongoing; you can
check progress with diskutil coreStorage list.

The entire logical volume family (LVF) is affected
since all LVs in an LVF share the same encryption
settings.

Any new user data written while this background
operation is in progress will be in encrypted form.

Specifying -passphrase or -stdinpassphrase or
interactively entering a passphrase is mandatory;
you do so in the same manner as with diskutil
coreStorage convert above.

decryptVolume | decryptLV lvUUID | device [-stdinpassphrase] |
[-passphrase passphrase]
Begin a live background process of decrypting the
on-disk backing bytes of an existing encrypted
CoreStorage logical volume (LV). Bytes are read,
decrypted, and written back to disk in plain form.
The LV must be unlocked before beginning this oper-
ation.

Like as in diskutil coreStorage encryptVolume
above, all on-disk bytes are visited and converted,
the process is seamless across reboots, the logical
volume remains usable at all times, the entire log-
ical volume family (LVF) is affected, any new user
data written will be in plain form, and the opera-
tion will be ongoing when this command returns.

Credentials must be supplied; you can use
-passphrase or -stdinpassphrase or specify that a
recovery keychain file be used, in the same manner
as diskutil coreStorage unlockVolume.

unlockVolume | unlockLV lvUUID [-stdinpassphrase] |
[-passphrase passphrase] | [-recoverykeychain file]
Unlock a logical volume and file system, causing it
to be attached and mounted.

Data is then accessible in plain form to the file
system and applications, while the on-physical-disk
backing bytes remain in encrypted form.

The locked state means that the CoreStorage driver
has not been given authentication information (a
passphrase) to interpret the encrypted bytes on
disk and thus export a dev node. This verb unlocks
a logical volume family (LVF) and its logical vol-
umes (LVs) by providing that authentication; as the
LVs thus appear as dev nodes, any file systems upon
them are automatically mounted.

To "re-lock" the volume, make it offline again by
ejecting it, e.g. with diskutil eject.

Credentials must be supplied. You must either enter
a passphrase interactively, specify one of the
-passphrase or -stdinpassphrase parameters in the
same manner as with diskutil coreStorage convert
above, or specify that a recovery keychain file be
used.

You can specify -recoverykeychain with a path to a
keychain file. The keychain must be unlocked; see
security(1) for more information.

changeVolumePassphrase | passwd lvUUID [-recoverykeychain
file] [-oldpassphrase oldpassphrase]
[-newpassphrase newpassphrase] [-stdinpassphrase]
Change the passphrase of an existing encrypted vol-
ume. It need not be unlocked nor mounted. The
parameters, while variously optional, must be given
in the above order.

You must authenticate either via the -oldpassphrase
parameter, via the -stdinpassphrase parameter (with
newline or eof-terminated data given to stdin), or
via an interactive prompt (if no parameters are
given), in the same manner as diskutil coreStorage
convert above. Alternatively, you can authenticate
by specifying -recoverykeychain with a path to a
keychain file.

A new passphrase must be supplied, again via one of
the three methods above (interactive,
-newpassphrase, or -stdinpassphrase).

If you are supplying both the old and new
passphrases via stdin, they must be separated with
a newline character.

resizeVolume | resizeLV lvUUID | device size
Resize a logical volume (LV). If you shrink an LV,
more space becomes available in its logical volume
group (LVG); if you grow an LV, less space becomes
available. You can check the free space with
diskutil coreStorage list. The file system volume
which resides inside the LV is grown or shrunk as
needed.

You can specify a size of zero (0) to fill up all
remaining space in the parent LVG with the given
LV.

resizeDisk | resizePV pvUUID size [part1Format part1Name
part1Size part2Format part2Name part2Size
part3Format part3Name part3Size ...]
Resize a physical volume (PV). If you shrink a PV,
less space becomes available in its logical volume
group (LVG); if you grow a PV, more space becomes
available. The partition in which the PV resides is
changed to accommodate, and the associated booter
partition, if present, is automatically moved.

Note that you cannot ordinarily grow a PV unless
there is free space in the partition map beyond it;
note also that you cannot ordinarily shrink a PV
unless the LVG has some free space in it (e.g. by
shrinking an overlying LV first).

When decreasing the size (shrinking), new parti-
tions may optionally be created to fill the newly-
freed space. To do this, specify the format, name,
and size parameters in the same manner as the
triplet description for the partitionDisk verb.

You can specify a size of zero (0) to fill up all
remaining space to the next partition or the end of
the partition map, if possible.

resizeStack lvUUID | device [pvUUID] size [part1Format
part1Name part1Size part2Format part2Name part2Size
part3Format part3Name part3Size ...]
Combine the actions of diskutil coreStorage
resizePV and diskutil coreStorage resizeLV in the
correct sequence in order to effect a shrink or a
grow in an entire LVG setup.

This is done by making a change to the size of a
logical volume (LV), after or before which (one of
its) physical volume(s) (PV) also changes its size
accordingly. The (HFS) file system "on top of" the
LV and the disk partition "below" the PV, as well
as the location of the PV's associated booter par-
tition, are automatically adjusted.

When decreasing the size (shrinking), new parti-
tions may optionally be created to fill the newly-
freed space. To do this, specify the format, name,
and size parameters in the same manner as the
triplet description for the partitionDisk verb.

Since an LVG might have one (e.g. Full Disk Encryp-
tion (FDE), aka FileVault), two (e.g. Fusion), or
even three (certain Boot Camp configurations) PVs,
a specific PV must be chosen. You can have this
command choose one for you, or you can specify the
PV UUID directly. If you do not specify a PV, the
one which has previously been marked for this pur-
pose is used; if no mark, a policy algorithm is
applied.

If your new LV size represents a grow of the exist-
ing LV size, then the PV size will take up more
space on disk, thus creating a larger LVG for the
larger LV to live in. If your new LV size repre-
sents a shrink, then the PV size will take up less
space on disk, thus creating a smaller LVG, which
is enough for the smaller LV to live in. The magni-
tude of the size change you specify (which is for
the LV) causes an exact size change in the PV if
you conform to partition rounding (alignment)
restrictions; the corresponding LV change may be
greater because it is under additional alignment
restrictions imposed by CoreStorage and HFS.

The "spilling over" of size change effects from one
PV onto another is not supported; only and exactly
one PV is affected by this operation. Grows or
shrinks whose effects don't "fit" the designated PV
will result in an error message and no effect. For
example, you can't do a shrink on a multi-PV setup
such that the designated PV should shrink to zero
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