Salut (hallo everybody, if you prefer), pendant très longtemps, les
ordinateurs personnels furent équipés que de liaisons externes FILAIRES
dite parallèle,s avec plusieurs ports dits série,s, dont celles qui
reliées le clavier et la souris (sorte de track ball inversé).

La partie principale de ces machines dites souvent personnelles [Main
Board Home Computer] purent communiquer ainsi avec d'autres
périphériques très matériels/logiciels [very hardware/software] et
souvent humanoïdes (mais via les interfaces graphique/clavier/souris)
et autres ports dits de communication ETHERNET [RJ45 (8 positions, 8
contacts (8P8C)] et,ou MODEM (dits souvent RJ12: 6 positions, 6
contacts (6P6C) [RTC (Réseau de Télé-Communications)/FAI (Fournisseur
d'Accès à Internet)].

Sans parler de la presque indispensable interface visuelle dite
graphique (Video Graphics Array et Super Video Graphics Array),
[VGA/SVGA], à partir de 1987 (en 2 dimensions, seulement)

Comme l'anglais serait de rigueur en informatique, voici plusieurs
autres sources et liens, glanés sur Wikipédia), vous devriez pouvoir
trouver facilement leurs correspondances francophones, à vous de voire,
lire et peut-être comprendre quelques-unes des astuces techniques qui
furent exploitées ?

Merci (thanks, if you prefer) but fu2:fr.sci.linguistique, only)


Computer port (hardware)from Wikipedia, the great free encyclopedia
on-line) :

In computer hardware, a 'port' serves as an interface between the
computer and other computers or peripheral devices.

Physically, a port is a specialized outlet on a piece of equipment to
which a Electrical connector plug or cable connects.

Electronically, the several conductors making up the outlet provide a
signal transfer between devices (several providers telecom, for

Hardware ports may be physically male (unusual, since protruding pins
easily break, a fate best left to inexpensive matching cable ends) or
female (usual on equipment).

[I] RS-232 (1969):


In telecommunications, RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is a standard
for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal
Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment).

It is commonly used in computer serial ports. A similar ITU-T standard
is V.24.

[II] IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) and ATA-1 (1986) - EIDE
(Enhanced IDE) and ATA-2 (1994) or IDE/PATA [Parallel Advanced
Technology Attachment].

ATA/ATAPI is the result of a long history of incremental technical

ATA/ATAPI is an evolution of the AT Attachment Interface, which was
itself evolved in several stages from Western Digital's original
Integrated Drive Electronics interface.

As a result, many near-synonyms for ATA/ATAPI and its previous
incarnations exist, including abbreviations such as IDE which are still
in common informal use. With the market introduction of Serial ATA in
2003, the original ATA was retroactively renamed Parallel ATA (PATA).

Parallel ATA standards allow cable lengths up to only 18 inches (46
centimeters) . Because of this length limit the technology normally
appears as an internal computer storage interface.

For many years ATA provided the most common and the least expensive
interface for this application.

Pin out http://cjoint.com/?kppPMOoZ8O :

Pin 1 Reset
Pin 2 Ground
Pin 3 Data 7
Pin 4 Data 8
Pin 5 Data 6
Pin 6 Data 9
Pin 7 Data 5
Pin 8 Data 10
Pin 9 Data 4
Pin 10 Data 11
Pin 11 Data 3
Pin 12 Data 12
Pin 13 Data 2
Pin 14 Data 13
Pin 15 Data 1
Pin 16 Data 14
Pin 17 Data 0
Pin 18 Data 15
Pin 19 Ground
Pin 20 Key or VCC_in
Pin 21 DDRQ
Pin 22 Ground
Pin 23 I/O write
Pin 24 Ground
Pin 25 I/O read
Pin 26 Ground
Pin 28 Cable select
Pin 29 DDACK
Pin 30 Ground
Pin 31 IRQ
Pin 32 No connect
Pin 33 Addr 1
Pin 34 GPIO_DMA66_Detect
Pin 35 Addr 0
Pin 36 Addr 2
Pin 37 Chip select 1P
Pin 38 Chip select 3P
Pin 39 Activity
Pin 40 Ground

[III] Serial ATA [SATA] (2004 to 2007]:


Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) is a computer bus
primarily designed for transfer of data between the motherboard and
mass storage devices, such as hard disk drives and optical drives,
inside a computer.

The main advantages over the older parallel ATA interface are faster
data transfer, ability to remove or add devices while operating (hot
swapping) (only when the operating system supports it), thinner cables
that let air cooling work more efficiently, and more reliable

It was designed as a successor to the Advanced Technology Attachment
standard (ATA), and is expected to eventually replace the older
technology (retroactively renamed Parallel ATA or PATA).

Serial ATA adapters and devices communicate over a high-speed serial

7-pin Serial ATA http://cjoint.com/?kppQYZDXRw ?

The SATA standard defines a data cable with seven conductors (3 grounds
and 4 active data lines in two pairs) and 8 mm wide wafer connectors on
each end.

SATA cables can be up to 1 m (39 in) long, and connect one motherboard
socket to one hard drive.

PATA ribbon cables, in comparison, connect one motherboard socket to up
to two hard drives, carry either 40 or 80 wires, and are limited to 45
cm (18 in) in length by the PATA specification (however, cables up to
90 cm (36 in) are readily available).

Thus, SATA connectors and cables are easier to fit in closed spaces and
reduce obstructions to air cooling.

They are more susceptible to accidental unplugging and breakage than
PATA, but cables can be purchased that have a 'locking' feature,
whereby a small (usually metal) spring holds the plug in the socket.

Standard Connector http://cjoint.com/?kppSaSrRzS (15-pin Serial ATA
power receptacle) ?

The SATA standard also specifies a new power connector.

Like the data cable, it is wafer-based, but its wider 15-pin shape
prevents accidental misidentification and forced insertion of the wrong
connector type.

Native SATA devices favor the SATA power-connector over the old
four-pin Molex connector (found on all PATA equipment), although some
SATA drives retain older 4-pin Molex in addition to the SATA power



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